Peter Ludvig Panum and the breakthrough of modern physical psychology in Denmark

In 2005, it was 120 years since Peter Ludvig Panum died 2. May 1885, only 64 years old. He was the originator of the experimental physiologists in Denmark. His successor, Christian Bohr, also died early, only 56 years old in 1911. It created a peculiar dynamism in the development of the experimental physiology in Denmark that its first practitioners did not complete their tenure. Paradoxically, this gave room for the next generations, which relatively quickly took on leading positions in international physiology, first Nobel laureate August Krogh and shortly after the Næstennobel prize winner Einar Lundsgaard. Several of their immediate successors are still alive. They all practiced a special Danish/Scandinavian Physiological "reasoning," which, in a sense, derives from the Panum's programme declaration as expressed in the doctorate action of 1851:

"The Methode that must be followed... Must be natural, with the use of all the equipment which could be used; In addition to the Chemien, above all microscopy, pathologic anatomy, Comparative Physiology, clinical observations and experiments on animals. With regard to the observations of others, a sharp but fair and impartial criticism must be used, just distant from unjustified skepticism and from blind authority. Before being built on the experiments of others, the alien must be conserved if possible. A strict logic that is not overtaken by Consequentserne must be the examiner's Compas, both by setting up and designing the experiments, which by deducing the results and the undoing of them. The examiner must seek to provide the concist and intended for Nature, that it like the distress to give an answer in one way or another. If he had received an answer, he would not dare to do so for a result before he had been confirmed unequivocally in his inquiries. For Nature's answers look like usual Orakel language, which is equivocal and slight misunderstand- The voice of the prenourished desires or presumptions. As well as the naturscientist than the believers to have all the appories in mind, however, he almost always discovers sources of Feil, and considers that, on his first questions, he has not received anything, either the affirmative or the negative answer. Although it is often associated with great difficulties to destroy the effects of these disturbing bitroublesome, it is, however, customary at last, by thoughtfulness, perseverance and taamoness. When he has given his questions in a Manner of urgency, he finally manages to defy the nature of a good and solemn answer. For nature can well like seem to hide

The truth about a thousand excursions, but it must answer when the questioners asked correctly, and it can never lie. "
This scientific programme statement can be measured by the most important of medical realism. It was a distinguished beginning and a fruitful starting point, but there is a clear tendency in the Panum's topic of choice. This trend reflects at the same time external-effects that modified and directional the scientific method, and internal influences that over time weakened the exact method and left a diffuse, often emotional business, plagued by controversy , criticism, ambition and trivia. A review of the scientific work of the panum shows that the scientific inrate of the Panum falls into four periods, partly similar to that of the panum. The trend of internal and external influences is also seen to have placed Panum's efforts in very specific categories corresponding to each period:
1847-52: The young Panum exercised the practical medical profession for various purposes and published it in particular. Its famous measles and cholera reports.
1853-63: Panum's business in Kiel bore the stamp of Claude Bernard's great influence. At the same time as the design of a physiological laboratory, the first few years came a number of metabolic and respiratory work, which testified of experimental thinking, but remained of minor importance, including the following: Because they were published in Danish.
1864-73: This company changed since, by virtue of its own merits, Panum did not only receive a chair in Copenhagen, but even allowed its acceptance to be made by an institution of its own. He was already a well-known researcher at this time. But it is possible that he did his science a disservice by searching for a remote, non-German speaking university, where public fame and Virak came easily to promising for-lovers and could deprive them of the initiative. It is characteristic of his business during this period that the position in Copenhagen was not scientific, but administrative and pedagogical. There was a change with Panum in Copenhagen, which took the sting of his ambitious scientific programme. He was captured by work not concerning his science, but nevertheless interested him, and he was also impatient.
1874-85: Panum discovered the O. 1874 that he had betrayed evidently important about-his science, but failed to achieve the desired impact. Magendie referred to himself as ' Chiffoni '. Also Panum for over the medical science field to collect superficial questions and leave them again before he reached the depths; For that, he was too versatile. It is therefore incorrect to designate the ' versatility ' of Panum as ' his strengtboth as a scientist and as a university teacher ' (Thorvald Madsen). There was in fact too little continuity in his business to serve a great, experimental program. However, a remnant — perhaps the most important — was left by the program: Panum set up an institution in which others could let his scientific ideals bear fruit; He supported the collection of Scandinavian medicine, which was later expressed in, for example, the Acta Scandinavica; He founded the Nordic medical meetings; And he organized a referent company for German assembles (Virchow-Hirsch, Schmidt etc.), through which the Nordic medical community spread to the great world.
Literature: Gjedde A (1971) Peter Ludvig Panum's scientific efforts. Køben-Harbour: library for doctors.

Info box:

Peter Ludvig Panum and the breakthrough of modern physical psychology in Denmark

Date: 30. May 2005
Time: 19:30:00

Lecturer: Albert Gjedde, University of Aarhus

The lecture is held: